On his deathbed, the Patriarch Jacob blesses his children with highly allegorical language that hints at future events for each of the 12 tribes. Half of the tribes are compared to animals. Below is a brief list:
Out of the six animals, two of them are furry four-legged carnivorous predators. Rabbi Hizkiyahu ben Manoach (Hizkuni) reads into the different allegories as they apply to the destinies of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin.
Both of these animals hint at monarchy and leadership. Saul, the first King of Israel was from the tribe of Benjamin. His reign was short-lived. David of the tribe of Judah established a long-lasting dynasty, that we believe will be reinstated in Messianic times.
Hizkuni compares the traits of the two different animals to the two different monarchies. Once a wolf has caught its prey, if his kill is threatened by another animal, it will leave it and not risk injury in fighting over it. Similarly, the tribe of Benjamin, under the leadership of Saul, did not hold on long to its prize. A lion on the other hand is the uncontested king of the wild. It will never leave its kill or retreated when threatened. So too, the tribe of Judah is destined to hold on to the kingship of Israel for eternity.
May we have the courage of the lion in holding on to our eternal principles.
To my sister JJ and her husband Dr. Elisha Kahen, on the birth of a baby girl. May they see a pride from her and her siblings.
“We are ready to be slaves to my lord,” Judah stated, prostrating on the ground with his brothers. “Both we, and the one in whose hand the goblet was found.”
“Nonsense,” the Viceroy stated in a strange voice. “The man in whose possession the goblet was found,” he pointed at Benjamin, “he shall be my slave, and as for you,” he motioned to the rest of the brothers, “go up in peace to your father.”
Why is he fixated on Benjamin? Judah wondered. We just offered him eleven strong and valuable slaves, but he is only interested in Benjamin. There must be more to this than what we can see.
“Please my lord,” Judah raised his head from his kneeling position, “may your servant speak a word in my lord’s ear – and let not your anger flare up at your servant – for you are like Pharaoh.”
The Viceroy motioned for Judah to approach his chair.
I must make him understand the family dynamics, Judah thought. If he keeps Benjamin, the remaining son of Rachel, Father will die! I cannot be the agent for yet another brother being enslaved. That would be too cruel a destiny.
Judah quietly repeated to the Viceroy the recent history and occurrences, adding how dear Benjamin is to their father, especially since the disappearance of Joseph, the first son of his beloved Rachel.
This Viceroy is powerful and smart, Judah noted to himself, though acting peculiarly. If he is intent on acquiring a slave from this mishap, I will offer myself.
“If I return to my father,” Judah pleaded, “and the youth is not with us – since his soul is so bound up with the youth’s soul – when he sees the youth is missing he will die, and I will have brought down the spirit of our father in sorrow to the grave.”
Judah paused a moment to catch his breath and see the impact of his words on the Viceroy. I can sense his inner turmoil, Judah thought hopefully, and his eyes are becoming moist. I must press on.
“For I took responsibility for the youth from my father saying, ‘If I do not bring him back to you then I will be sinning to my father for all time.’ Now, therefore, please let me remain instead of the youth as a servant to you my lord,” Judah noted the Viceroy’s gasp, “and let the youth go up with his brothers. For how can I go up to my father if the youth is not with me, lest I see the evil that will befall my father!”
The Viceroy’s eyes widened in surprise. He is shocked by my willingness to trade places with Benjamin, Judah concluded. His face is bubbling and contorting…
“Enough!” The Viceroy shouted, ripping his head ornament off.
“Servants! Leave the room!” The Viceroy continued shouting, his eyes wild.
Judah and his brothers were confused, not knowing what to do.
“You. Stay,” the Viceroy pointed at the brothers, barely containing himself.
All of the guards and household staff scurried quickly out of the hall, perplexed by their master’s uncharacteristic outburst.
As soon as the last servant closed the door to the hall the Viceroy wailed: “Aaaaaah!”
The cry was loud, powerful and echoed the turmoil of a tortured soul. It reverberated throughout the Viceroy’s mansion and beyond and pierced the heart of whoever heard it. The brothers were stunned and uncomprehending.
Who is this man? Judah wondered. What have we unleashed?
“I am Joseph,” the Viceroy proclaimed through his sobs. “Is my father still alive?”
This is not possible! Judah thought in astonishment, Joseph!? How can this be? After all these years?
The brothers looked at each other with a mixture of fear and disbelief.
Can it be? Judah thought to the others, Joseph? The one we betrayed? Now all-powerful in mighty Egypt? What does he want? Does he seek revenge? Is all this some ruse to punish us?
Judah and his brothers took a step back in apprehension.
“Please come to me,” Joseph called to them more softly, seeing their distrust.
“I am Joseph your brother,” he said controlling his tears, “it is me, whom you sold into Egypt. And now, be not distressed, nor reproach yourselves for having sold me here, for it was to be a provider that God sent me ahead of you. For this has been two of the hunger years in the midst of the land, and there are yet five years in which there shall be neither plowing nor harvest.”
Is this possible? Judah started to recover from his shock and examined Joseph more closely. I now perceive some of his old mannerisms. But see how he has grown and matured. He is not the spoiled and vain teen we cast off. He is still grandiose, but in a strong and powerful way. God is with him!
Joseph told the brothers about how his being sold into slavery was part of a divine plan to save the family from the famine. The brothers were apprehensive, not sure what Joseph’s intentions were.
“Hurry – go up to my father and say to him,” Joseph elaborated. “’So said your son Joseph: God has made me master of all Egypt. Come down to me; do not delay. You will reside in the land of Goshen and you will be near to me – you, your sons, your grandchildren, your flock and your cattle, and all that is yours. And I will provide for you there – for there will be five more years of famine – so you do not become destitute, you, your household, and all that is yours.” ‘
He means to support us! Judah was surprised. He does not bear a grudge and he means to provide for the entire family! This is incredible! Our distress has been changed into salvation and joy; though some of my brothers seem unconvinced. Joseph perceives this as well.
“Behold!” Joseph gestured towards Benjamin. “Your own eyes see as do the eyes of my brother Benjamin that it is I, your brother that is speaking to you.”
Joseph then approached Benjamin and embraced him tightly. Tears now streamed profusely down the cheeks of the reunited sons of Rachel.
He is Joseph! Judah affirmed to himself. Joseph is back! God’s hand is heavily at work here – how wondrous!
Reuben was the next to hug Joseph, the elder who had tried to save Joseph all those years ago.
And then Joseph approached Judah. It was my initiative to sell you, Judah thought guiltily. I am the one who created all this anguish.
But Joseph’s eyes were only filled with tears and love and forgiveness. He radiated to Judah: You are forgiven my brother. All is forgiven. And then they hugged.
Brother, they each thought as they warmly embraced.
* * * * * *
Genesis 44:14 – 45:15
And Judah and his brethren came to Joseph’s house, and he was yet there; and they fell before him on the ground.
And Joseph said unto them: ‘What deed is this that ye have done? know ye not that such a man as I will indeed divine?’
And Judah said: ‘What shall we say unto my lord? what shall we speak? or how shall we clear ourselves? G-d hath found out the iniquity of thy servants; behold, we are my lord’s bondmen, both we, and he also in whose hand the cup is found.’
And he said: ‘Far be it from me that I should do so; the man in whose hand the goblet is found, he shall be my bondman; but as for you, get you up in peace unto your father.’
Then Judah came near unto him, and said: ‘Oh my lord, let thy servant, I pray thee, speak a word in my lord’s ears, and let not thine anger burn against thy servant; for thou art even as Pharaoh. My lord asked his servants, saying: Have ye a father, or a brother? And we said unto my lord: We have a father, an old man, and a child of his old age, a little one; and his brother is dead, and he alone is left of his mother, and his father loveth him. And thou saidst unto thy servants: Bring him down unto me, that I may set mine eyes upon him. And we said unto my lord: The lad cannot leave his father; for if he should leave his father, his father would die. And thou saidst unto thy servants: Except your youngest brother come down with you, ye shall see my face no more. And it came to pass when we came up unto thy servant my father, we told him the words of my lord. And our father said: Go again, buy us a little food. And we said: We cannot go down; if our youngest brother be with us, then will we go down; for we may not see the man’s face, except our youngest brother be with us.
And thy servant my father said unto us: Ye know that my wife bore me two sons; and the one went out from me, and I said: Surely he is torn in pieces; and I have not seen him since; and if ye take this one also from me, and harm befall him, ye will bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. Now therefore when I come to thy servant my father, and the lad is not with us; seeing that his soul is bound up with the lad’s soul; it will come to pass, when he seeth that the lad is not with us, that he will die; and thy servants will bring down the gray hairs of thy servant our father with sorrow to the grave. For thy servant became surety for the lad unto my father, saying: If I bring him not unto thee, then shall I bear the blame to my father for ever.
Now therefore, let thy servant, I pray thee, abide instead of the lad a bondman to my lord; and let the lad go up with his brethren. For how shall I go up to my father, if the lad be not with me? lest I look upon the evil that shall come on my father.’
Then Joseph could not refrain himself before all them that stood by him; and he cried: ‘Cause every man to go out from me.’ And there stood no man with him, while Joseph made himself known unto his brethren.
And he wept aloud; and the Egyptians heard, and the house of Pharaoh heard.
And Joseph said unto his brethren: ‘I am Joseph; doth my father yet live?’ And his brethren could not answer him; for they were affrighted at his presence.
And Joseph said unto his brethren: ‘Come near to me, I pray you.’ And they came near. And he said: ‘I am Joseph your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt. And now be not grieved, nor angry with yourselves, that ye sold me hither; for G-d did send me before you to preserve life. For these two years hath the famine been in the land; and there are yet five years, in which there shall be neither plowing nor harvest. And G-d sent me before you to give you a remnant on the earth, and to save you alive for a great deliverance.
So now it was not you that sent me hither, but G-d; and He hath made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and ruler over all the land of Egypt. Hasten ye, and go up to my father, and say unto him: Thus saith thy son Joseph: G-d hath made me lord of all Egypt; come down unto me, tarry not. And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and thy children’s children, and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast; and there will I sustain thee; for there are yet five years of famine; lest thou come to poverty, thou, and thy household, and all that thou hast. And, behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it is my mouth that speaketh unto you. And ye shall tell my father of all my glory in Egypt, and of all that ye have seen; and ye shall hasten and bring down my father hither.’
And he fell upon his brother Benjamin’s neck, and wept; and Benjamin wept upon his neck.
And he kissed all his brethren, and wept upon them; and after that his brethren talked with him.
“That was not as terrible as I feared,” Benjamin exhaled. “In fact, it was truly pleasant. The Viceroy was a gracious and generous host.”
“Yes,” Simeon added. “Even after he imprisoned me, I was treated as a royal guest.”
Benjamin and his ten half-brothers were riding their grain-laden donkeys out of the Egyptian capital.
“The entire encounter was bizarre,” Judah warned pensively. “The Viceroy’s behavior was unusual. First he accuses us of being spies, and when we bring Benjamin he treats us as long lost brothers. His line of questioning was also strange. Very personal. I think he was not convinced Benjamin is our brother. It was as if he was trying to ascertain our feelings towards Benjamin – why would he care?”
“Let us be thankful that we retrieved Simeon,” Reuben counseled. “There is no need to seek further worries. Let us make haste back home to Canaan and put this episode behind us.”
Agreeing with Reuben, Benjamin looked behind as if to say a final farewell to the capital. “What is that cloud?” he asked, perplexed.
It is moving towards us quickly, Benjamin thought.
All the brothers turned around.
“It is not good,” Judah stated.
“It is an army,” Simeon noted.
Yes. The rising dust of a quickly moving platoon. Benjamin’s heart beat faster.
“Perhaps it is some troop redeployment?” Reuben said hopefully.
“No. It is an army in pursuit,” Judah declared.
“Who are they after?” Benjamin asked nervously.
“Seeing as there are no other groups on this road that have entangled with the rulers, I suspect it may be us,” Judah concluded.
“Let us run,” Simeon urged.
“Our donkeys will never outrun their horses,” Judah replied, “and we have done nothing wrong, though I am apprehensive. Form a perimeter around Benjamin, and let us continue casually.”
“I do not need special protection,” Benjamin protested weakly. Will they sell me out at the first sign of trouble? My half-brothers have a history of treachery to the sons of Rachel.
“I promised Father your safety,” Judah answered. “If something were to happen to you, son of his favorite Rachel, Father would probably die from the grief. He would not take such news of the rest of us as badly.”
Benjamin nodded his understanding as his brothers surrounded him on their mounts. Judah is a man of his word, the rest might follow his lead.
Moments later a cavalry one hundred men strong encircled them. They were led by the Viceroy’s Captain, the young but authoritative Menasheh.
“Halt! Brigands!” Menasheh called as one hundred spears enclosed them.
“Why do you address us so, my Lord,” Reuben responded.
“Why have you repaid evil to my master’s generosity?” Menasheh retorted angrily. “You have stolen his precious drinking vessel. Did you not expect him to discover its absence? You have done wrong by him.”
“Heaven forbid that your humble servants should do such a thing,” Reuben replied. “We have already returned the money that was mistakenly placed in our bags. How could we take anything from your master’s house, whether silver or gold? Search us! By whomever you shall find a stolen object we shall put to death, and the rest of us shall become your slaves.”
“It shall be as you speak,” Menasheh grinned, “though we shall not be as harsh as your judgment. Simple Egyptian justice shall suffice. The thief shall become my slave and the rest of you shall be free to go.”
Reuben unloaded his heavy burlap bag from his donkey, placed it on the floor and opened it for Menasheh’s inspection. Each of the brothers in turn repeated the gesture.
Menasheh dismounted from his proud Egyptian steed and under cover of his cavalry’s spears approached the bags. He retrieved a short sword from his right side and thrust it into Reuben’s open bag. Menasheh then swirled the sword in the bag, only to hear the swish of grain on steel.
Menasheh repeated the motions with each of the subsequent brothers: Simeon, Levi, Judah, Gad, Asher, Yissachar, Zevulun, Dan and Naftali. The brothers had relaxed, feeling that they were being proven innocent of their wrongful accusation. Judah was wary, sensing trouble.
Menasheh thrust his sword into Benjamin’s bag. “Clink!” was clearly heard as metal hit metal. Menasheh plunged his hand into the bag of grain and triumphantly revealed the Viceroy’s silver goblet.
The brothers gasped in shock. They tore their garments in the symbol of grief. Benjamin was incredulous. Simeon whispered angrily, “Thief, son of thief! Just as your mother was a petty bandit, so have you turned out!”
Simeon has always been the roughest, Benjamin fought back his despair. I cannot let him turn the other brothers against me.
“Do not speak to me of chicanery,” Benjamin hissed back. “Was I the one who sold Joseph into slavery? Who deceived our Father? Do not presume to show righteousness with me, Simeon. I am as blameless of this theft as I am of Joseph’s sale. This is not my doing.”
“I do not care to endure a family squabble,” Menasheh interrupted. “You! Benjamin. Come with me. I shall be a firm master, my new slave. The rest of you are dismissed.”
This is it. This is the moment of truth. Shall my brothers again betray a child of Rachel – shall they prove themselves to still be jealous half-brothers?
No one moved. The brothers looked at Menasheh blankly and then again at Benjamin. They did not react to the new situation.
“Are your brains addled Hebrews?” Menasheh grunted. “Did you not hear me? Move away from the slave, so that I my take my lawful property. The rest of you are free to go.”
Do not forsake me! Benjamin thought to his brothers. If you leave me, we shall all perish! I will be enslaved, Father will die from heartbreak and the family will fall apart. Do not let the family of Israel end before it has begun.
Menasheh motioned to his troops and the ring of spears became tighter around the brothers. Instinctively, the brothers encircled Benjamin in a closer formation, each with their back to Benjamin, facing the soldiers.
My brothers are with me. Benjamin felt hopeful.
Then an opening of spears was formed towards the north.
“Sons of Jacob!” Menasheh commanded. “You are now interfering in my business. Please leave my new slave. I assume you do not want to entangle with my troops. Furthermore, if you ever want to purchase more grain from Egypt, I strongly suggest that you leave forthwith, with no further delay or resistance.”
Do not leave me. Benjamin prayed. Judah, please, say something!
“We shall all return with Benjamin,” Judah stated, standing taller.
“That is not required or preferred,” Menasheh replied, trying to hide a smile.
“Nonetheless, we insist,” Judah reaffirmed. “We shall go together, or you will have a nice little brawl on your hands.” At that all the sons of Jacob took a step forward, sword in hand. The spears moved back apprehensively.
“I will not risk harm to my new acquisition,” Menasheh was taken aback by the Hebrew determination. “We shall escort all of you back to the Viceroy, where he shall lay his judgment.”
With another motion of Menashe’s hand, the spears parted way southward and closed in on the north side, pushing the brothers back to the city.
“We shall not abandon you,” Judah whispered to Benjamin. “We shall never abandon you. We shall never again betray a brother.” And then in an undertone to himself Judah continued, “I have made that mistake once already.”
* * * * * *
“And my goblet – the silver goblet – place in the mouth of the youngest one’s sack along with the money of his purchase.” And he followed Joseph’s word exactly.
The day dawned and the men were sent off, they and their donkeys. They had left the city, had not gone far, when Joseph said to the one in charge of the house, “Get up, chase after the men; when you overtake them, you are to say to them, “Why do you repay evil for good? Is it not the one from which my master drinks, and with which he regularly divines? You have done evil in how you acted!”
He overtook them and spoke those words to them. And they said to him, “Why does my lord say such things? It would be sacrilegious for your servants to do such a thing. Here, look: The money that we found in the mouth of our sacks we brought back to you from the land of Canaan. How then could we have stolen from your master’s house any silver or gold? Anyone among your servants with whom it is found shall die, and we will become slaves to my lord?”
He replied, “What you say now is also correct. The one with whom it is found shall be my slave, but the rest of you shall be exonerated.”
Hurriedly, each one lowered his sack to the ground, and each one opened his sack. He searched; he began with the oldest and ended with the youngest; and the goblet was found in Benjamin’s sack. They rent their garments. Each one reloaded his donkey and they returned to the city. Genesis 44:2-13
When the time came for Benjamin to go down with the brothers to Egypt, they placed him between themselves and guarded him. Bereshit Rabbah 95:1
When the goblet of Egypt’s viceroy was found in Benjamin’s sack, his brothers said to him, “Thief, son of a thief (referring to Rachel, who stole the teraphim)!” He replied, “Is my master Joseph here? Is the goat (that you slaughtered in order to dip Joseph’s coat in its blood) here? Brothers who sold their brother!” Bereshit Rabbah 92:8
When the goblet was found in Benjamin’s sack, each of the brothers turned his face away. Who stood up? The one who became surety for Benjamin – Judah. Tanchuma, Vayigash.
Because Menasheh caused the Tribes to tear their garments in grief over the episode of the ‘stolen’ goblet (when he chased after them and accused them of stealing it), his inheritance was torn: half was in the land of the Jordan and half in the land of Canaan. Bereshit Rabbah 84:20
Dutch painter. He was the son of a well-to-do Mennonite cloth merchant in Amsterdam. He served his apprenticeship there among the artists now called the Pre-Rembrandtists. After his marriage in 1620, commemorated by the poet Joost van den Vondel (1587-1639), he settled in Leeuwarden, his wife’s native city, where he became a preacher in the Mennonite community and worked primarily as a painter. He was also active as an art dealer, as is known from his estate inventory, which records transactions in Amsterdam with the Mennonite art dealer and patron of Rembrandt, Hendrick van Uylenburgh. Two of Jacobsz.’s pupils were Govaert Flinck and Jacob Backer. His son, the painter Abraham van den Tempel probably also studied with him before becoming Backer’s pupil c. 1642-46.
Non-scientists do not always realize the power that Einstein’s equations unleashed. Einstein changed the worldview of fixed measurements and popularized the concept of everything being relative to each other. What may be more significant though, is the powerful relationship between mass and energy (E=mc2). Serious amounts of energy are required to change matter, however mass can turn into vast amounts of energy.
Rabbi Hizkiyahu ben Manoach (Hizkuni) appears to indicate that similar laws function on the spiritual plane. Mountains can be physically moved. Up can be transformed into down and dimensions can be altered, all depending on ones spiritual power and direction.
Hizkuni notes an odd geographic incongruence in the story of Judah son of Jacob. Judah is recorded as “going up” to the town of Timnah. About six centuries later, famous strongman Samson is recorded as “going down” to the town of Timnah, ostensibly departing from the same location.
Hizkuni explains the change in direction as a result of metaphysical reasons. Both reasons were interestingly enough not known to the protagonists before their trek (and both had to do with romantic encounters). Samson was on his way “down” to his rendezvous with notorious Delilah, which would lead to the Philistine animosity, his blinding, destruction and ultimate failure. Judah, thanks to Tamar’s deception, was en route “up” to sire the future royal line of Israel.
It seems from Hizkuni’s comparison, that even future acts can have a relativistic and dimensional effect on current reality. Einstein might have approved of this possibility, as time is also just another dimension and subject to relativistic laws.
May all our acts be directed upwards, whether future, present or past (changeable as well according to Jewish metaphysical theory).
Shabbat Shalom and Chanukah Sameach,
To my Vaad guys from “down under”. All from the Southern Hemisphere, they have truly ascended in their journey to Israel. May this year turn out to have been just another station in their upwards ascent.