2: Oaths of expression; Tuma awareness; moving items on Shabat; Tzaraat. There are 2 primary forms of each, but each is 4.
3: Swore will eat loaf, didn’t, not lashed. R’ Yohanan: ‘cuz prohibition w/o action. Resh Lakish: can’t get clear warning.
4: Redeem 1st born w/ 5 shekel. Learn Klal uPrat uKlal: must be movable & self-value; excludes land, slaves, documents.
5: Sotah waters only work to prove wife’s infidelity if husband is free of sin. If husband isn’t sin-free, doesn’t work.
6: Romans greater than Persians, their coin circulates thru entire world; Daniel’s prophecy “will devour whole world…”
7: Knew of impurity, forgot, entered Temple or ate Kodshim, didn’t remember before YomKipur, YomKipur sacrifice protects.
8: Goat doesn’t fully atone, does suspend punishment. Rava: protects from punishment until realizes sin, brings sacrifice.
9: Resh Lakish: Goat of New Moon brought as sin-offering “To God”, atones for fact that God diminished size of the moon.
10: R’ Yohanan: General rule: If one matter learned from another, new matter can teach more, except in matters of Kodshim.
11: Frankincense; incense; meal-offerings of Kohen, High Priest & libations: liable for misuse from time of consecration.
12: R’ Yehuda: minor Mitzvot: standard positive Mitzva & a prohibition; major Mitzvot: sins punished by Karet & death.
13: Rebbi: Yom Kipur atones for all sins except if: denies God’s existence; ridicules the Torah; annuls his circumcision.
14: HighPriest sacrifices 1st for self. How justice works: better innocent atone for guilty, than guilty atone for guilty.
15: All new Mishkan utensils made in Moshe’s day were sanctified w/ anointing oil. After Moshe, sanctified by usage.
16: R’ Yehoshua: sacrifice even if no Temple; eat sacred offerings even if no curtain; eat in Jerusalem even if no wall.
17: Impure man suspended in airspace of Temple long enough to bow down, liable or not? Issue of time or ability? Unclear.
18: Doesn’t separate from wife around time of her menstruation, even if has sons like sons of Aaron, can die ‘cuz of sin.
19: R’ Yishmael: every Torah passage that was stated & repeated was for the purpose of novel element that was introduced.
20: God said “Remember” & “Observe” Shabat in 1 utterance, man can’t say or hear. Women say Kidush; Observe, so Remember.
21: Violated prohibitions w/ no action, don’t flog, except: oaths, substituted consecrated animal, cursed w/ God’s name.
22: Person swore that “won’t eat” but drank, liable. Learn from a verse & from reasoning. Verse talks about “eating” wine.
23: Rava to Abaye: In matters of oaths, drinking is included in term “eating”; eating isn’t included in term “drinking”.
24: Rava: If person took an oath that will not eat, and then ate dirt, exempt. Eating an inedible substance isn’t eating.
25: Vows (Nedarim) take effect on Mitzvot; oaths (Shevuot) don’t. Oaths effect intangible & tangible; vows only tangible.
26: R’ Yishmael served R’ Nehunya b Hakane, expounds Klal uFrat. R’ Akiva served Nahum Ish Gamzu, expounds Ribuy & Miut.
27: Utterance oath: break on purpose: lashes; unintentional, sacrifice. Vain oath: on purpose: lashes; if not, exempt.
28: Sages dissolved 4 vows w/o needing special request: vows of: exhortation; exaggeration; unwitting; can’t fulfill.
29: The prohibition of idolatry is so severe that if one denies idol worship, it is as if he affirms the entire Torah.
30: If witness is greater sage than judges & disgrace for him to testify in front of them, doesn’t go (in monetary cases).
31: Judge may not hear one party before the other party comes. “Distance yourself from a false matter.”
32: Words said “within speaking” considered as continuation of previous statement. Within time to say Shalom Alecha Rabbi.
33: R’ Yosi HaGelili: “Saw or knew.” Testimonies that can work in $ cases: sight w/o knowledge; knowledge but no sight.
34: Witnessed man run after other into ruin, ran after him, saw him w/ blood-dripping knife over body, can’t testify.
35: R’ Yehuda taught in the name of Rav: hosting guests is greater than receiving the Divine Presence.
36: A claim defendant would’ve paid ‘cuz of own admission, if takes false oath on it, liable for guilt-offering sacrifice.
37: R’ Yohanan: Gives false oath for monetary claim to which there are witnesses, liable for guilt-offering sacrifice.
38: Oath taken while standing, Torah scholar sits. Oath taken while grasping Torah scroll, Torah scholar grasps Tfilin.
39: Judges to oathtaker: The entire world trembled when God said at Sinai: Don’t take the name of God, your God, in vain.
40: In a case where if there were 2 witnesses they would have obligated the defendant to pay, if there’s 1, he swears.
41: Borrowed in front of witnesses, doesn’t need to repay in front of witnesses unless lender specifically states so.
42: Man about to die who consecrated all his possessions to the Temple, says owes $ to someone & pay him 1st, believe.
43: Defendant never has to take oath unless item claimed by size/weight/number & he admits part of size/weight/number.
44: Most take oath & don’t pay. Take oath & get claim: worker; robbed; injured; vs oath suspect; shopkeeper w/ ledger.
45: Item deposited in front of witnesses doesn’t need to be returned in front of witnesses. Deposited w/ document, does.
46: Hiding taken item, believe & swear if: person sells it, something people hide, shy, accused of theft or don’t lend.
47: R’ Pappa: the term “Sages of Babylonia” refers to Rav & Shmuel; “Sages of Eretz Israel” to R’ Abba.
48: Married 1st wife, she died; married 2nd wife, he dies: 2nd wife & her heirs have precedence over 1st wife heirs.
49: Changed story: liable to liable, exempt to exempt, exempt to liable: they’re exempt. Liable to exempt, they’re liable.
2: Trial: Roman Empire to God. We built markets, bathhouses, increased gold, so Jews could learn Torah. God: liars!
3: Non-Jew who engages in Torah study is considered like a High Priest. However, don’t get same reward; not commanded.
4: Unsheathed sun to judge wicked, won’t have root in this world, branch in next 1. Righteous will delight in that sun.
5: R’ Yohanan: When Jews engage in Torah & acts of kindness, their evil inclination is in their power, not other way.
6: Can’t give a Nazirite wine; severed limb of live animal to non-Jew: Don’t put stumbling block in front of the blind.
7: Asked Sage, said matter forbidden, don’t ask 2nd Sage who’ll say permitted. 2 answered, follow strict for Torah law.
8: Can pray for own needs in Shomea Tfila. Can make requests within related blessings, like healing in Refaenu, etc.
9: Tana D’Bei Eliyahu: World will exist 6000 years: 2000 years chaos; 2000 Torah; 2000 Messiah, but sins take from #.
10: Antoninus to Rebbi: Roman nobles threatening me. Rebbi uprooted radish/day. Antoninus: kill 1 by 1, not all at once.
11: Onkelos converted to Judaism. Roman emperor sent troops to bring him in. Onkelos taught them & they converted.
12: Wherever the Sages prohibited an action because it looks like a prohibition, can’t do even in innermost chambers.