Daf Yomi Highlights

Also available as daily tweet on @bentzis #dafyomi

restart 18 Kislev 5777 (Dec. 18, 2016)

#BavaMetzia
83: Workers are hired as per local customs: starting and finishing hour, meals.
84: Fish protected by water from eyes, so too Joseph’s descendents are protected from the Evil Eye.
85: Afflictions came upon Rebbi for an instance of not being merciful. They left because of an act of mercy.
86: 3 angels visited Abraham: Michael to inform about Isaac’s birth, Rafael to heal Abraham, Gabriel to destroy Sodom.
87: Say little and do much. We learn from Abraham who offered guests bread, but served beef.
88: Produce is only liable to tithe when processing done. Permitted to eat before done, prohibited after until tithed.
89: Harvesters of figs, dates, grapes or olives can eat those products while harvesting without tithing.
90: Prohibited to muzzle an animal, even when threshing, except when it’s for the animal’s own health.
91: Prohibited to knead dough with milk & forbidden to eat bread made with milk, lest eat it with meat.
92: Workers in field can eat more than worth of wages, but better not because won’t be hired again. R’ Elazar says no.
93: Guard of a field is not legally entitled to eat from it, but is allowed due to custom.
94: Any conditional agreement where the condition is contrary to the Torah is legally void.
95: If a person borrowed a cow, but the owner accompanied the cow, borrower is exempt from payment if the cow dies.
96: Learn from text: Borrowed cow *from* neighbor, liable. Borrowed cow *with* neighbor, not liable.
97: A person is not liable for an object that he borrowed and broke if didn’t use it abnormally.
98: If admits to part liability obligated to swear on the rest. If not certain, can’t swear & needs to pay fully.
99: R’ Huna: Borrower acquires ax only when starts to chop with it, not before.
100: Buyer & seller each claim cow or slave sold gave birth under their ownership, split value of offspring.
101: The Jewish sharecropper of a field in Israel that is owned by a non-Jew must still separate tithes.
102: If a non-Jew owns the house that a Jew was renting, the Jew takes his Mezuza with him. If Jewish owner, leaves it.
103: Rented a house & it fell, the owner must provide renter a new house with the same attributes (size, # of windows).
104: Hillel: Marriage contract stated woman becomes wife after Nisuin ceremony, not after Kidushin commitment.
105: Can’t force end of profitable Iska (business) partnership before agreed time. Mazal (luck) of 2 greater than 1.
106: Sharecropper took field to plant barley, can’t then plant wheat; but if took to plant wheat, may plant barley.
107: R’ Yochanan: Blessing that 1/3 of your land should be grain fields, 1/3 olive orchards and 1/3 vineyards.
108: The law called Bar Meitzra: neighbor to land that is being sold has the right to buy it before anyone else.
109: Can be fired without warning for negligence: teacher of children, planter, slaughterer, bloodletter & scribe.
110: Can’t delay paying wages. Worked during day, must be paid that night. Worked at night, must be paid following day.
111: Whoever delays in paying wages violates 5 prohibitions and 1 positive commandment.
112: R’ Yosi b R’ Yehuda: One who withholds wages is like one who takes his life.
113: Shmuel: Can’t cure 3 things: ate bitter date on empty stomach; wore wet flax belt; didn’t walk after ate, & slept.
114: Elijah to Raba b Avuha: Can’t separate Teruma if naked: have to bless before separating & can’t bless while naked.
115: Can’t enter borrower’s house to collect collateral & can’t take a utensil used for preparing food as collateral.
116: Took as collateral a utensil that shouldn’t, made of 2 parts (like 2 parts of a scissor), liable for each part.
117: Trees must be kept 25 amot away from wells (around 12.5m); carob or sycamore trees 50 amot (25m).
118: R’ Yosi b R’ Chanina: A courtyard acquires something that entered it, even without the owner’s knowledge.
119: R’ Meir: Orla applies to what grows out of stumps or roots. R’ Yehuda: Orla only applies to what grows from roots.
#BavaBatra
2: Ability of a neighbor to have unobstructed view into ones house from outside is considered a damage (Hezek Reiah).
3: Don’t demolish a synagogue before you’ve built its replacement.
4: “The bird of the skies will carry the voice.” Don’t say anything you wouldn’t want repeated to anyone else.
5: Resh Lakish: We don’t believe people who say they paid their debt earlier than they had to, without proof.
6: Facing houses: each owner needs to build at least half a length of wall on roof to prevent the other from looking in.
7: Lived in city 12 months, status of resident to pay for city projects. Bought house, considered resident immediately.
8: All punishments come to the world due to ignoramuses. (Kaiser that levied taxes on city, ignoramuses left, pardoned).
9: Whoever gives charity to a poor person receives 6 blessings. Whoever consoles a poor person receives 11 blessings.
10: Debate: TurnusRufus: Giving to poor is against God’s wish. R’ Akiva: Giving to poor exactly what God wants us to do.
11: Munbaz gave his wealth to charity: “Went up, can’t touch, bears fruit, saves souls, benefits me, gets next world.”
12: R’ Avdimi: After era of Prophets, prophecy given to the wise. R’ Yochanan: prophecy given to fools and children.
13: Half-slave, half-free must be freed entirely (so can marry). “World was only created for the sake of reproduction.”
14: Authors of Tehilim (Psalms): King David, Adam, MalkiTzedek, Abraham, Moshe, Heiman, Yedutun, Asaf & Korach’s 3 sons.
15: R’ Yehuda: Joshua wrote last 8 lines of Torah (about Moshe’s death). R’ Shimon: Moshe wrote it himself in tears.
16: God to Iyov (Job): I didn’t err in placement of hair follicles. I didn’t err in punishing you. Iyov vs Oyev (enemy).
17: Eden snake killed 4 (they didn’t sin): Benjamin, Amram (Moshe’s dad), Yishai (David’s dad) & Cilav son of David.
18: Must keep 3 Tefah (handsbreadth) away from neighbor’s wall: grains, plow, urine.
19: R’ Nahman: Ditch to soak laundry must be at least 3 Tefah from neighbor, ditch to rub laundry at least 4 Amot away.
20: Can open bakery or dyer’s shop under wine storage; smoke improves wine. Can’t have animal pen; stench spoils wine.
21: Yehoshua b Gamla stopped Torah being forgotten in Israel. Instituted national school system. Also, 25 kids/teacher.
22: Only acceptable jealousy is that of scholarly accomplishment – increases wisdom. “Kinat sofrim tarbe chochmah.”
23: Any indirect damage that someone may cause is still their responsibility and prohibited to allow to happen.
24: “A pot owned by partners is neither hot nor cold.” If more than one person has responsibility, job doesn’t get done.
25: 4 winds always blow, but world can’t exist w/o north wind. South wind would destroy world if not for angel Ben Netz.
26: Roots of neighbor’s tree are in your field: can cut the roots up to depth of 3 Tefah, so don’t block path of plow.
27: Ulla: Square of same length as diameter of circle is 1/4 bigger. Sages: Ulla was not precise (but reasonably close).
28: Hazaka: owner if act as such 3 yrs over: pit, cave, dovecote, bathhouse, olive press, fields, slaves & production.
29: Rava: Human nature: need 3 yrs to establish Hazaka, as one pardons use of their property for 1 or 2 yrs, but not 3.
30: Rava: Normal for person to be busy at market for 30 days & not go home or notice squatter in house during that time.
31: R’ Yehuda: Don’t establish Kohen with just 1 witness. R’ Elazar: If no one argues, can establish Kohen w/ 1 witness.
32: Law like Rabah on land dispute, leave claimant there; like R’ Yosef on money dispute, leave money where it is.
33: People aren’t so brazen as to harvest a field that isn’t theirs or eat food that isn’t theirs.
34: If required to take an oath (only 1 witness), but for some reason can’t give an oath (not believed), has to pay.
35: R’ Ashi: Serial robber is still called a robber. Can’t atone: stolen object won’t be returned; doesn’t know to who.
36: Ate Orla (prohibited early produce), produce of 7th yr or Kilayim (prohibited mix) doesn’t prove owns via Hazaka.
37: R’ Zvid: 1st claims trees, 2nd claims land, that’s what get. R’ Papa: 1st gets trees w/ 1/2 land, 2nd gets 1/2 land.
38: Reason 3yrs for Hazaka: 1yr until people talk about it, 1yr to get word overseas, 1yr for owner to return & protest.
39: If person doesn’t have an independent need to keep your secret, will eventually forget that it’s secret & reveal it.
40: Should state in front of 2 witnesses: protests; declarations (of duress); admissions (of obligation); acquisitions.
41: Owner: “What are you doing in my field?” Squatter: “I’ve been here 3 yrs. No one said anything.” Not a Hazaka claim.
42: Craftsmen, partners, sharecroppers & overseers can’t prove own by Hazaka on property they work on, share or oversee.
43: Torah scroll was stolen from a city: can’t use the judges of that city to judge the case as they may be biased.
44: Sold land w/o taking responsibility if taken by creditor, buyer can’t make claims. Seller can’t give any testimony.
45: If deposited an item in front of witnesses, must be returned in front of witnesses.
46: Took back article from craftsman & discovers not his, can use it until claimed. Took from some gathering, can’t use.
47: R’ Yochanan: A thief & his son are both disqualified from claiming anything per rules of Hazaka. Grandson can.
48: Divorce bill (Get) forced by non-Jew is valid, but Rabbis prohibited so women shouldn’t be dependent on non-Jew.
49: Woman can say to her husband: “Don’t take care of me financially, but then you don’t get any of my earnings.”
50: No Hazaka by damages, can always protest: R’ Mari: smoke entering property; R’ Zvid: stench reaching neighbor.
51: Sold field to wife: she acquires, he can eat the produce. Gifted field to wife: she acquires, he can’t eat produce.
52: Has deposit from child, buy w/ it Segula (produces & principal intact) – R’ Hisda: a Torah. Rabah: a date tree.
53: 2 free fields: If takes hold of: field A, acquires it; A to acquire both, just gets A; A to acquire B, gets 0.
54: Shmuel: “dina d’malhuta dina” = Law of the land is the law. King says can only buy land w/ contract, must follow.
55: When determining Peah (leaving corner of field to poor), divided by river, stream, public or private road or path.
56: Hazuva: trees Joshua planted to mark land borders. Roots go straight down & don’t nurture from other’s property.
57: Hazaka of land not accomplished by: leaving one’s animal there, setting up oven or millstone, or raising chickens.
58: A wise man only places his shoes under his bed. An ignoramus has a whole storehouse under his bed.
59: If drainpipe drips water into neighbor’s yard, owner can’t block the pipe & neighbor can protest if does.
60: Rabbis can’t make a decree that most of the people will not be able to handle.
61: Sold Zihara (inheritance), includes fields, gardens & vineyards but not houses or slaves; sold “his property”, all.
62: In sale of field, borders of the field need to be extremely well defined, otherwise can end up with unusual borders.
63: Sumchus: If said give to so-and-so “part of pit”, gets 1/4; “of barrel”, 1/8; “of pot”, 1/12; “of pitcher”, 1/16.
64: Sold house, doesn’t include pit/cistern, however, if seller wants to use them, needs rights to path. Sages disagree.
65: Pipe was hollowed out & then attached: like a utensil & disqualifies Mikva if it’s waters were filled via the pipe.
66: R’ Eliezer: A beehive is like land: doesn’t get ritually impure, if remove honey on Shabat, liable. Sages disagree.
67: Sold “Hatzer” (courtyard), includes: houses, pits & caves, not movable objects; unless said “Hatzer & all in it”.
68: Sold field, doesn’t include unneeded rocks or reeds and unattached grain, unless said “field & everything inside”.
69: Rocks that are needed for a field: Sages of Bavel: rocks that hold down sheaves. Ula: rocks arranged like wall.
70: R’ Chisda: Borrower believed if said returned loan, if he swears. (He could have said that it was lost blamelessly).
71: R’ Akiva: Sold field, doesn’t include pit, winery or dovecote, whether empty or full, but must buy path to access.
72: If consecrated to Temple 3 trees spaced out over area of 75,000 amot2, also includes all land & trees between them.
73: If sold ship, includes mast, sail, anchors & oars, but not slaves, bags for merchandise or merchandise.
74: 2 crevices w/ smoke where Korach & his group were swallowed. They chant: “Moshe & his Torah are true. We are liars.”
75: Rav: Pulling a ship any amount acquires it. Shmuel: One must pull the ship its own length to acquire it.
76: R’ Papa: When sell documents, must write in document to transfer ownership: “acquire it & all the liens it creates.”
77: Sold wagon, didn’t include mules; mules, didn’t include wagon; yoke, didn’t include oxen; oxen, didn’t include yoke.
78: Calculation of the World: calculating the cost of doing a Mitzva vs the reward; the gain of sin vs what will lose.
79: R’ Yehuda: whoever separates from Torah is consumed by fire. R’ Dimi: whoever separates from Torah falls to Gehinom.
80: Bought tree in order to cut it down, must cut a handbreadth above ground in order to allow the tree to grow again.
81: Bought 2 trees, doesn’t acquire land w/ it. Bought 3, does & owns whatever grows from stump & roots & can replant.
82: R’ Hiya b Aba: Bought 3 trees, acquires land. Includes under & between trees & area around for harvester & basket.
83: Sold head of large animal, legs not included; legs, head not included; lung, liver not included; liver, no lung.
84: Sun is white, but red morning & evening. Rays pass through roses of Gan Eden in AM & through entry of Gehinom in PM.
85: Buyer’s utensil acquires whatever is placed in it wherever he’s allowed to place the utensil (not in public domain).
86: Buyer brought seller’s workers w/ fruit into his house, if didn’t set price AND measure fruit, either can retract.
87: Can’t pay discounted wage before start of work; discount looks like charging interest. Once started working, fine.
88: Sages: Borrowing without permission is like stealing. Must return to owner (& not just return to where took from).
89: Place where normally sell even measure, don’t sell heaping measure & vice-versa; even if says will adjust the price.
90: It’s prohibited to hoard life-essential products, such as wine, oil and flour, to sell later at a higher price.

 

Tractate Berachot

Tractate Shabbat

Current Chapter is Chapter 21:

Pg 141: A person can carry his young child even if the child is holding an item that shouldn’t be carried on the Sabbath.

Chapter 1 – Daily Tweets

 

Chapter 1 Summary: “Yetziot Hashabat”: Laws regarding moving things from domain to domain on the Sabbath; definition of different domains (public, private, exempt and “karmelit”); lifting and placing an object.Permitted and prohibited work on Sabbath eve; preventive legislation so one does not err and violate the Sabbath by accident; permissibility of work commenced or instructed before the Sabbath that is done by a gentile or automatically.
Chapter 2 – Daily Tweets Chapter 2 Summary: “Bameh Madlikin”: Lighting of candles on the Sabbath for pleasure of Sabbath and creating peace in the home. Requires good oils and wicks that will burn well. Prohibited to use poor oils or wicks that may call for subsequent manipulation on the Sabbath.Laws of Chanukah candle-lighting and difference from Sabbath. On Sabbath, primarily to illuminate and use; for Chanukah, primarily just the act of lighting and can’t use. Therefore no restrictions on types of oils or wicks used for Chanukah.
Chapter 3 – Daily Tweets Chapter 3 Summary: “Kirah”: Prohibitions and permissibility as to leaving food to cook or warm on different types of ovens or heating structures on the Sabbath. In general, if the food was cooked sufficiently before the Sabbath, or if there is no likelihood of adjusting the heat, then it’s permissible to leave the food over the heat source.Cooking with fire is biblically prohibited. All other cooking methods are rabbinically prohibited.Utensils that are exclusively used for an action that is prohibited on the Sabbath are “muktzeh” and can’t be handled on the Sabbath.
Chapter 4 – Daily Tweets Chapter 4 Summary: “Bameh Tomnin”: Prohibition of insulating hot food on the Sabbath. Differentiation between insulators that add heat (prohibited) and those that merely preserve heat (permitted).Insulators that add heat are “muktzeh” and can’t be handled directly.Allowed to insulate food or drink to keep it cold.
Chapter 5 – Daily Tweets Chapter 5 Summary: “Bameh Behemah”: Prohibited and permissible items to have on an animal so as not to violate prohibition of carrying or handling on the Sabbath. Anything solely for the animal’s normal protection or comfort is permissible. Exceptions are things of value that may easily fall off and the owner would unthinkingly pick up.
Chapter 6 – Daily Tweets Chapter 6 Summary: “Bameh Ishah”: Clothing and accessories that one can or can’t go out with on the Sabbath.Differentiation of items that are considered as worn by women and those worn by men.Items that one might remove at some point either out of shame or to show off, can’t be worn on the Sabbath.One can carry weapons on the Sabbath in time of need.
Chapter 7 – Daily Tweets Chapter 7 Summary: “Klal Gadol”: 3 levels of inadvertent sin on the Sabbath:

  1. Don’t know about the need to keep the Sabbath.
  2. Didn’t know what day the Sabbath was.
  3. Forgot at the moment that is was the Sabbath and didn’t know or forgot the act they were doing was forbidden.

There are 39 prime categories of prohibited acts on the Sabbath. Most have a certain “minimum” quantity that makes one Biblically “liable” for the act.

Carrying gets special attention and there are a range of “minimums” that create liability depending on what item it is.

 

Chapter 8 – Daily Tweets Chapter 8 Summary: “Hamotzi Yayin”: Continuation of specific “minimum” measurements for different materials that one is liable for carrying on the Sabbath. Often dependant on how the food, drink or item is used. Also consider future use of the material. Stories regarding health and knowledge of the natural world as part of Jewish law.
Chapter 9 – Daily Tweets Chapter 9 Summary: “Amar Rabbi Akiva”: Collection of disparate stories and laws, including ritual impurity (of idol worship, of ships, etc.), laws of items that should not be mixed (“shatnez”).Most of the laws discussed are not rooted in the biblical text but are rather a tradition transmitted orally by Moses, as well as subsequent rabbinical enactments. Many have scriptural support though not direct biblical command.Extensive dealing with the Giving of the Torah, both determination of the date it occurred and the surrounding events.
Chapter 10 – Daily Tweets Chapter 10 Summary: “Hamatznia”: Differentiation between objective act and intent regarding the prohibition of moving items from one domain to another on the Sabbath. Both regarding minimum amount one is liable for (an individual may consider a lesser amount of importance or only a larger amount) and the way it was moved (conventionally or unconventionally).  The difference is whether the prohibited act is Biblically liable or only Rabbinically so.Also, two individuals who perform a prohibited act that could have been accomplished by one are only liable Rabbinically.Also, determination of what constitutes a “conventional” act is based on what most people do.
Chapter 11 – Daily Tweets Chapter 11 Summary: “Hazorek”: Determination that the specific Sabbath prohibitions are not in the Biblical text but are rather a tradition of Moses from Mt. Sinai. However, the specifics are derived from the acts that were performed in the construction and operation of the Tabernacle.More details regarding the prohibition of transporting, including throwing and handing over. The Biblical parameters of between an outright public domain to an outright private domain, and the rabbinic construct of “carmelit” (not fully public or private domain).
Chapter 12 – Daily Tweets Chapter 12 Summary: “Haboneh”: The act of construction includes any action that builds or improves a structure or part of it. Plowing includes any action that improves the condition of the soil. There is no “minimum” quantity for the above two that creates liability (i.e. one is liable for even the most minute act of construction or plowing). The “minimum” biblical liability for writing is two characters written conventionally.
Chapter 13 – Daily Tweets Chapter 13 Summary: “Haoreg”: Prohibition of weaving and all supporting functions. Hunting: once an animal that is normally hunted and is otherwise free is captured, one is liable.
Chapter 14 – Daily Tweets Chapter 14 Summary: “Shmona Shratzim”: It is prohibited to kill any creature on the Sabbath (unless they are life-threatening). There is a Biblical prohibition against wounding only the “eight creatures” (all other creatures are a Rabbinic prohibition). Drawing blood is a Rabbinic prohibition.Any food or drink with medicinal properties that are also consumed by healthy people, may be taken on the Sabbath. Anything that is exclusively medicinal cannot be taken except with a significant change in its administration so that it no longer seems medicinal, or if the situation is life-threatening. In any life-threatening situation, outright Sabbath prohibitions should be violated if they are required to save and preserve life.
Chapter 15 – Daily Tweets Chapter 15 Summary: “Ve’elu Kesharim”: Forbidden knots on the Sabbath must be “professional” and “permanent” knots. Anything tied and untied on a daily basis is not prohibited. One cannot do even normally permitted activities on the Sabbath if they are in preparation for after the Sabbath.
Chapter 16 – Daily Tweets Chapter 16 Summary: “Kol Kitvei”: Prohibition of extinguishing fire on the Sabbath that does not present any danger, even if it may destroy objects, and parameters of what and how can save from the fire. Less relevant in our day and age when most uncontrolled fires are considered highly dangerous.Permissibility of use or benefit of work by gentile on the Sabbath if not done directly for the Jew. Prohibition of use or benefit of work done by gentile on the Sabbath if instructed or directly benefiting the Jew.
Chapter 17 – Daily Tweets Chapter 17 Summary: “Kol Hakelim”: Development and eventual relaxation of laws of “Muktzeh”, articles that cannot be handled on the Sabbath.Muktzeh because of loss of value cannot be handled.Muktzeh because of prohibited use can be moved for the objects benefit or because one needs the place it is resting.Muktzeh because it’s “disgusting” can be handled.Raw materials and money cannot be handled.Anything that becomes Muktzeh with the entry of the Sabbath remains Muktzeh for the entire Sabbath. All the above is just for the Sabbath. Muktzeh on the Holidays is more stringent.
Chapter 18 – Daily Tweets Chapter 18 Summary: “Mefanin”: Muktzeh of raw materials is very different from that of utensils. Utensils by definition are ready for use and an act of some sort is required to change this “ready” status. Raw materials are the opposite.Muktzeh of animals is a Rabbinic prohibition and is waved when animals are suffering.Laws of dealing with sick on the Sabbath. All is permissible to deal with life-threatening situation. Women in labor and newborns are treated as life-threatening situations. Non-life-threatening situations have both stringencies and areas that are permitted depending on the conditions and needs.
Chapter 19 – Daily Tweets Chapter 19 Summary: “Rabbi Eliezer D’Milah”: Laws of circumcision that occurs on the Sabbath and Holidays. One of the commandments that override the Sabbath. However, whenever there is any doubt regarding the circumcision (time of birth, gender) it does not override the Sabbath. Anyone who circumcised on the Sabbath when they shouldn’t have has more leniency than other mistaken Sabbath infractions.
Chapter 20 – Daily Tweets Chapter 20 Summary: “Tolin”: Distinctions as to the prohibition of construction of a permanent tent or structure and a temporary one on the Sabbath.

Permissibility of preparation on the Sabbath of food that is already edible.

Chapter 21 – Daily Tweets  
Chapter 22 – Daily Tweets  
Chapter 23 – Daily Tweets  
Chapter 24 – Daily Tweets  

——————————-

Other partial Daf Yomi Highlights (will hopefully fix and complete at the end of this cycle (2019-2020):

Tractate Erchin

Tractate Tmura

Tractate Kritut

Tractate Niddah

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