Daily Rambam – Sefer Nezikin

Daily Rambam Tweets – Sefer Nezikin

Started 8 Kislev 5777 (Dec. 8, 2016) 

#NizkeiMamon
1:1 Owner is responsible for all damage done by his animal.
2:2 Private property damaged by pebbles kicked by animal walking — owner pays half.
3:1 Animal eats someone else’s produce: in private property owner pays full damage.
4:1 If owner took normal precautions but the animal escaped and damaged, owner blameless.
5:1 Animal wanders in field, farmer warns owner 3 times, then slaughters animal and tells owner “here’s the meat.”
6:6 “Muad” (forewarned) animal that is sold or given as a gift reclaims status of a “Tam” (simple, placid) animal.
7:3 Animal that hurt a person, the owner pays damages, but not for pain, work stoppage, medical or embarrassment.
8:6 Ox did damage & owner sold it, plaintiff gets damages of value of ox from buyer & buyer reclaims from seller.
9:1 1st ox chasing 2nd. 2nd ox got hurt. Owner of 2nd says to 1st: your fault. 1st says: don’t know. No payment.
10:11 Man enters private property without permission & killed by animal, owner doesn’t have to make restitution.
11:9 An ox that killed a man and was sentenced to death, any sale, gift or transfer of ox ownership is invalid.
12:10 Man dug pit 10 handbreaths or more, liable for death of animal that falls in. Not liable for death if less.
13:2 Obstacles left in the public path have the same laws as a “pit”. The person who left it pays for all damages.
14:2 Started fire in own field, spread to neighbor’s field, liable, unless unlikely it would have spread (river).
#Geneiva 
1:3 “Ganav” a thief who steals without owners knowing. “Gazlan” a robber who takes by force with victim’s knowledge.
2:1 A Jew that steals from a non-Jew or from Temple property must repay the principal, but not the “double” fine.
3:1 Person whose act merits both capital punishment & financial penalty, only receives capital punishment.
4:1 Guard swore item wasn’t by him, took it for himself & witnesses testified that it was by him, pays double.
5:1 Don’t buy stolen goods. Severe sin. Encourages thieves to steal more. Proverbs 29:24: “hates his own soul.”
6:2 If shepherd sells item that would be noticed by owner, can buy from him. If wouldn’t be noticed, considered stolen.
7:1 Weights and measures must be exact. Anything less is deceiving others.
8:1 Just as with scales, weights & measures, also need to be exact with land. Even a fingerbreadth of land great loss.
9:12 Trespasser into garden, field, pen or corral (as opposed to a house) may not be killed by owner.
#Gezela 
1:10 Just the desire to get home, wife, utensils or anything else of his fellow, even legally, violates “Don’t covet.”
2:1 Stolen object that has not changed, object itself must be returned. If changed, returns value of object.
3:1 Object thief stole rose in value & thief damaged it, pays increased value. Otherwise, pays value at time of theft.
4:1 Robber fined that victim swears about what was stolen & if there are witnesses to a theft robber pays entire claim.
5:18 A king whose currency is accepted throughout the land is a true king. If not, he’s a thief & his laws aren’t valid.
6:10 Rabbis prohibited gambling. It’s like stealing, even if participants know & agree beforehand that can lose money.
7:1 Jew denies that he owes money to a Jew. Swore falsely. Has to pay back the principal plus 1/5th & bring a sacrifice.
8:5 Stole from a convert & swore falsely, if convert died without inheritors, pays Kohanim principal +1/5 + sacrifice.
9:1 Robbed property & damaged it, robber must return property to original condition or add to the difference in value.
10:1 If non-Jew seized field of Jew with cause & then sold it to another Jew, 1st Jew has no claim to land.
11:1 Positive command to return lost object to fellow Jew. If doesn’t, violates prohibition & negates positive command.
12:1 A person’s own lost object has priority over that of anyone else, if can’t also return the other person’s object.
13:1 Lost objects that are returnable: the finder needs to publicize it & ask for identifying signs to give it back.
14:2 Lost object with no identifying marks: when owner realizes lost, despairs of ever finding it. Finder can keep it.
15:1 Finds object that seem intentionally placed down, can’t touch it, even if doesn’t have identifying mark.
16:1 Needles, nails or the like: found 1, can keep; found 2 or more, needs to announce. Number of items like a mark.
17:1 Whenever talked about finding a lost article, only becomes finder’s property when reaches his hand or his domain.
18:13 Found contract. If possible the obligation already fulfilled, don’t return contract, lest try to make 2nd claim.
#Hovel
1:1 When injure someone liable for 5 things: damages, pain, medical treatment, loss of work and embarrassment suffered.
2:14 To determine medical expenses, estimate days condition will last & requirements to treat. Damager pays immediately.
3:7 Grave sin: “Whoever embarrasses someone publicly with words doesn’t have a share in the world to come.”
4:7 Hit own parent: if didn’t draw blood, owe the 5 payments; if drew blood, doesn’t owe because punishment is execution.
5:2 Can’t raise hand in threatening way against another, even if don’t hit them. Considered a wicked person if does so.
6:8 Guy with beam walking behind guy with jug. If beam breaks jug, owner of beam is liable.
7:7 One is fully liable for any damages that caused indirectly (i.e. removed pillow from under falling utensils).
8:14 Person pursuing a murderer in act of attacking 3rd party is not liable for any incidental damage, so won’t hesitate.
#Rozeah
1:7 Better to stop a potential murderer “Rodef” non-fatally, but if not sure will stop them, commanded to kill them.
2:4 King or court allowed to kill assassin contractor even if technically they are not deserving of the death penalty.
3:3 Man died from blow of object: court checks object, strength of blow, attacker, victim & likelihood of death.
4:8 Murderer who can’t be executed because of technicality: imprisoned, fed little, then fed barley until belly bursts.
5:1 Killed unintentionally, exiled to City of Refuge. Court can’t accept ransom from killer to stay in his own city.
6:4 If someone was killed due to negligence, murderer is not accepted to City of Refuge & blood redeemer can kill him.
7:8 Admitted to City of Refuge, prohibited to leave, even for great need of nation. Only freed when Kohen Gadol dies.
8:10 Other 42 Levite cities serve as cities of refuge, but the 6 main Cities of Refuge are havens even without intent.
9:2 Murdered corpse discovered. Buried where found. Elders of nearest city bring calf (egla arufa) to riverbank.
10:9 Elders decapitate calf by riverbank. Can never farm that area. Can comb flax, drill stones (i.e. non-farming work).
11:4 Must build strong guardrail 10 Tefah high on roof & any potentially dangerous location on ones property.
12:4 Don’t put coins in mouth. May have dried spittle of sick person or sweat. All sweat is like venom except from face.
13:1 Friend’s animal falling under its load, command to help him unload the animal whether load is too much or not.
End Sefer Nezikin
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Sefer Kinyan