Daf Yomi Shabbat

Also available as daily tweet on @bentzis #dafyomi

Tractate Shabbat

Chapter 1 – Daily Tweets

 

Chapter 1 Summary: “Yetziot Hashabat”: Laws regarding moving things from domain to domain on the Sabbath; definition of different domains (public, private, exempt and “karmelit”); lifting and placing an object.Permitted and prohibited work on Sabbath eve; preventive legislation so one does not err and violate the Sabbath by accident; permissibility of work commenced or instructed before the Sabbath that is done by a gentile or automatically.
Chapter 2 – Daily Tweets Chapter 2 Summary: “Bameh Madlikin”: Lighting of candles on the Sabbath for pleasure of Sabbath and creating peace in the home. Requires good oils and wicks that will burn well. Prohibited to use poor oils or wicks that may call for subsequent manipulation on the Sabbath.Laws of Chanukah candle-lighting and difference from Sabbath. On Sabbath, primarily to illuminate and use; for Chanukah, primarily just the act of lighting and can’t use. Therefore no restrictions on types of oils or wicks used for Chanukah.
Chapter 3 – Daily Tweets Chapter 3 Summary: “Kirah”: Prohibitions and permissibility as to leaving food to cook or warm on different types of ovens or heating structures on the Sabbath. In general, if the food was cooked sufficiently before the Sabbath, or if there is no likelihood of adjusting the heat, then it’s permissible to leave the food over the heat source.Cooking with fire is biblically prohibited. All other cooking methods are rabbinically prohibited.Utensils that are exclusively used for an action that is prohibited on the Sabbath are “muktzeh” and can’t be handled on the Sabbath.
Chapter 4 – Daily Tweets Chapter 4 Summary: “Bameh Tomnin”: Prohibition of insulating hot food on the Sabbath. Differentiation between insulators that add heat (prohibited) and those that merely preserve heat (permitted).Insulators that add heat are “muktzeh” and can’t be handled directly.Allowed to insulate food or drink to keep it cold.
Chapter 5 – Daily Tweets Chapter 5 Summary: “Bameh Behemah”: Prohibited and permissible items to have on an animal so as not to violate prohibition of carrying or handling on the Sabbath. Anything solely for the animal’s normal protection or comfort is permissible. Exceptions are things of value that may easily fall off and the owner would unthinkingly pick up.
Chapter 6 – Daily Tweets Chapter 6 Summary: “Bameh Ishah”: Clothing and accessories that one can or can’t go out with on the Sabbath.Differentiation of items that are considered as worn by women and those worn by men.Items that one might remove at some point either out of shame or to show off, can’t be worn on the Sabbath.One can carry weapons on the Sabbath in time of need.
Chapter 7 – Daily Tweets Chapter 7 Summary: “Klal Gadol”: 3 levels of inadvertent sin on the Sabbath:

  1. Don’t know about the need to keep the Sabbath.
  2. Didn’t know what day the Sabbath was.
  3. Forgot at the moment that is was the Sabbath and didn’t know or forgot the act they were doing was forbidden.

There are 39 prime categories of prohibited acts on the Sabbath. Most have a certain “minimum” quantity that makes one Biblically “liable” for the act.

Carrying gets special attention and there are a range of “minimums” that create liability depending on what item it is.

 

Chapter 8 – Daily Tweets Chapter 8 Summary: “Hamotzi Yayin”: Continuation of specific “minimum” measurements for different materials that one is liable for carrying on the Sabbath. Often dependant on how the food, drink or item is used. Also consider future use of the material. Stories regarding health and knowledge of the natural world as part of Jewish law.
Chapter 9 – Daily Tweets Chapter 9 Summary: “Amar Rabbi Akiva”: Collection of disparate stories and laws, including ritual impurity (of idol worship, of ships, etc.), laws of items that should not be mixed (“shatnez”).Most of the laws discussed are not rooted in the biblical text but are rather a tradition transmitted orally by Moses, as well as subsequent rabbinical enactments. Many have scriptural support though not direct biblical command.Extensive dealing with the Giving of the Torah, both determination of the date it occurred and the surrounding events.
Chapter 10 – Daily Tweets Chapter 10 Summary: “Hamatznia”: Differentiation between objective act and intent regarding the prohibition of moving items from one domain to another on the Sabbath. Both regarding minimum amount one is liable for (an individual may consider a lesser amount of importance or only a larger amount) and the way it was moved (conventionally or unconventionally).  The difference is whether the prohibited act is Biblically liable or only Rabbinically so.Also, two individuals who perform a prohibited act that could have been accomplished by one are only liable Rabbinically.Also, determination of what constitutes a “conventional” act is based on what most people do.
Chapter 11 – Daily Tweets Chapter 11 Summary: “Hazorek”: Determination that the specific Sabbath prohibitions are not in the Biblical text but are rather a tradition of Moses from Mt. Sinai. However, the specifics are derived from the acts that were performed in the construction and operation of the Tabernacle.More details regarding the prohibition of transporting, including throwing and handing over. The Biblical parameters of between an outright public domain to an outright private domain, and the rabbinic construct of “carmelit” (not fully public or private domain).
Chapter 12 – Daily Tweets Chapter 12 Summary: “Haboneh”: The act of construction includes any action that builds or improves a structure or part of it. Plowing includes any action that improves the condition of the soil. There is no “minimum” quantity for the above two that creates liability (i.e. one is liable for even the most minute act of construction or plowing). The “minimum” biblical liability for writing is two characters written conventionally.
Chapter 13 – Daily Tweets Chapter 13 Summary: “Haoreg”: Prohibition of weaving and all supporting functions. Hunting: once an animal that is normally hunted and is otherwise free is captured, one is liable.
Chapter 14 – Daily Tweets Chapter 14 Summary: “Shmona Shratzim”: It is prohibited to kill any creature on the Sabbath (unless they are life-threatening). There is a Biblical prohibition against wounding only the “eight creatures” (all other creatures are a Rabbinic prohibition). Drawing blood is a Rabbinic prohibition.Any food or drink with medicinal properties that are also consumed by healthy people, may be taken on the Sabbath. Anything that is exclusively medicinal cannot be taken except with a significant change in its administration so that it no longer seems medicinal, or if the situation is life-threatening. In any life-threatening situation, outright Sabbath prohibitions should be violated if they are required to save and preserve life.
Chapter 15 – Daily Tweets Chapter 15 Summary: “Ve’elu Kesharim”: Forbidden knots on the Sabbath must be “professional” and “permanent” knots. Anything tied and untied on a daily basis is not prohibited. One cannot do even normally permitted activities on the Sabbath if they are in preparation for after the Sabbath.
Chapter 16 – Daily Tweets Chapter 16 Summary: “Kol Kitvei”: Prohibition of extinguishing fire on the Sabbath that does not present any danger, even if it may destroy objects, and parameters of what and how can save from the fire. Less relevant in our day and age when most uncontrolled fires are considered highly dangerous.Permissibility of use or benefit of work by gentile on the Sabbath if not done directly for the Jew. Prohibition of use or benefit of work done by gentile on the Sabbath if instructed or directly benefiting the Jew.
Chapter 17 – Daily Tweets Chapter 17 Summary: “Kol Hakelim”: Development and eventual relaxation of laws of “Muktzeh”, articles that cannot be handled on the Sabbath.Muktzeh because of loss of value cannot be handled.Muktzeh because of prohibited use can be moved for the objects benefit or because one needs the place it is resting.Muktzeh because it’s “disgusting” can be handled.Raw materials and money cannot be handled.Anything that becomes Muktzeh with the entry of the Sabbath remains Muktzeh for the entire Sabbath. All the above is just for the Sabbath. Muktzeh on the Holidays is more stringent.
Chapter 18 – Daily Tweets Chapter 18 Summary: “Mefanin”: Muktzeh of raw materials is very different from that of utensils. Utensils by definition are ready for use and an act of some sort is required to change this “ready” status. Raw materials are the opposite.Muktzeh of animals is a Rabbinic prohibition and is waved when animals are suffering.Laws of dealing with sick on the Sabbath. All is permissible to deal with life-threatening situation. Women in labor and newborns are treated as life-threatening situations. Non-life-threatening situations have both stringencies and areas that are permitted depending on the conditions and needs.
Chapter 19 – Daily Tweets Chapter 19 Summary: “Rabbi Eliezer D’Milah”: Laws of circumcision that occurs on the Sabbath and Holidays. One of the commandments that override the Sabbath. However, whenever there is any doubt regarding the circumcision (time of birth, gender) it does not override the Sabbath. Anyone who circumcised on the Sabbath when they shouldn’t have has more leniency than other mistaken Sabbath infractions.
Chapter 20 – Daily Tweets Chapter 20 Summary: “Tolin”: Distinctions as to the prohibition of construction of a permanent tent or structure and a temporary one on the Sabbath.Permissibility of preparation on the Sabbath of food that is already edible.
Chapter 21 – Daily Tweets  
Chapter 22 – Daily Tweets  
Chapter 23 – Daily Tweets  
Chapter 24 – Daily Tweets  

——————————-

 

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s